pitching the entirety of modern science

goal is to a get strong intuition of 90% of the most impactful scientific concepts


  • imagine being a programmer but not understanding core libraries in languages you use
    • how can i be a human and not understand the core libs/laws/principles that got us here
  • also it’d be tragic to die w/o knowing all the sciences. so many died before learning this stuff



It’s just a number: 6.022x10^23

So for example 6.022x10^23 grains of rice == 1 mole of rice

It’s written like “mol” because its about things that are “smol” lol

1 mole == # atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12 isotope

Also called avogadros #

This is needed because if you want to do chemical reactions you have to count the # of atoms in each elements in the reaction

So for example you could say photosynthesis is 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light but counting atoms is hard.

so you just say: give me 1 gram of CO2 and 1 gram of H2O because we know we can weight stuff

but the mass of these atoms is different. so 1 gram of CO2 is not the same # of atoms as 1 gram of H2O

so the reaction fails

ok so counting atoms sucks, and using our traditional measure like grams sucks

now what?

we use moles!

way easier to say: hey I have 1 mol of HO2 you have 1 mol of CO2 and know that this means we have same # of atoms in each. happens to be 6.022x10^23 atoms

And since 1 mole of carbon 12 is 12 grams so relative to this we can have way simpler terms like: ah ok 1/12th mole of CO2 is 1 gram.

Mole simplifies the interface between macroscopic scale and microscopic. It’s like how in CS we use bytes and bits. We don’t just think about bits all the time as thats a pain in the ass, we work with larger things like “words” and “bytes” because they store “characters” and characters are how we naturally think

To think about chemistry you need to think about atoms and molecules and there are a lot of them

instead of using massive numbers the mol is a simplified abstraction around a logical # of atoms that helps make reasoning about chemical reactions + other stuff easier.

not fully sure how this ties in with Avogadros #, avogadros law etc. but the gist is moles make it easier to think about atoms w/o doing math on massive numbers. you don’t have to use it, but its just better.


atomic theory

Molecular Orbital Theory









habit formation